From the diminutive haiku, the complex pantuom to the massive epic, there is a poetic style to fit everyone and every idea. But if you want to learn about all the variety before the open mic, I just found an excellent resource.
Poets.org has an excellent collection of poetic forms for you to browse with historical contexts, examples, and more. Try learning about a new form each day over your morning coffee.
Then next time someone mentions poetry around the water cooler (you might have to initiate that conversation) you will be able to dazzle with your know-it-all.